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Amélioration des propriétés rhéologiques et à jeune âge des laitiers alcali-activés au carbonate de sodium

Abstract : Today, environmental problems are more acute than ever. Urgent measures should be taken in all spheres of human activity including construction and civil engineering. One of the major contributors of negative environmental impacts from this industry is the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) required for concrete and other cementitious materials production. Although its importance to economical development, it has a significant drawback - its production is accompanied by the emission of large quantities of greenhouse gases. They account for 5-8% of total world CO2 emissions. More environmentally friendly cementitious materials are now required.Significant reductions of the environmental impact can be achieved only through the use of new-generation binders whose manufacture does not require a lot of additional processes and treatments. One route is through the use of industrial wastes as binders (different slags, fly ash, biomass bottom ash, etc.). In this way there is not only a reduction in the impact of processes such as mining or calcination, but also the recycling of waste materials (circular economy principle).One possibility is to use ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as the basis for such a new generation cement. Due to its rather low reactivity with water, additional supplements (also called activators) should be used to promote the hydration process. One of the most promising, and at the same time least studied, activators is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Such alkali-activated cements present high mechanical and durability properties, as well as a very low CO2 footprint. Among the main problems hindering its industrial scale adoption are their poor rheology and too slow strength gain within the first days of hardening.The objective of the present thesis is to develop a new binder based on Na2CO3 activated GGBS that would meet all the modern requirements of the construction industry, in particular regarding the rheological properties and early age strength development. In addition this binder should always respond to at least three main criteria: low environmental impact, low health and safety concerns in field applications, and be economically competitive at industrial scale.In the present work, the influence of different parameters like water/binder ratio, Na2CO3 concentration, slag fineness and curing conditions on both early age and long term properties of the mixture were studied. Based on the results of the hydration process analysis, phosphonate based additives that allow for the effective control of the rheology of such binders were successfully tested. They not only allow control over the setting time, but also provide a plasticizing effect.Regarding the improvement of early age strength properties, various methods have been used. The use of heat treatment or an increase of GGBS fineness turned out to be efficient. Exploring the causes of the long induction period has shown that acceleration can also be achieved by the addition of a calcium source with controlled dissolution kinetics. As a result, the binder became more reactive and robust against certain factors (activator concentration, Water/Binder ratio, curing conditions, etc.). To compensate for the additional carbon footprint from the added calcium source, the binder was successfully diluted by limestone without any degradation of the properties below some dilution percentages.
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Artur Kiiashko. Amélioration des propriétés rhéologiques et à jeune âge des laitiers alcali-activés au carbonate de sodium. Génie civil. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLN033⟩. ⟨tel-03384897⟩

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