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Participation of an electric vehicle fleet to primary frequency control in France

Abstract : Using electric vehicles (EV) as distributed storage units could be a solution to take advantage of the good availability of EVs and reduce their total cost of ownership. The scientific literature features frequency control as one of the most profitable electric market for EV fleets. This paper presents an economic evaluation of the expected remuneration for a fleet of EVs participating to primary frequency control in France in 2020. First, the modelling of a French EV fleet is addressed. Simulations of the participation of this fleet to the French primary frequency control market are then performed. Two regulation strategies are considered: in the first one, only unidirectional power exchanges are allowed between EVs and the grid, while in the second one bidirectional exchanges are allowed. Results show that the expected remuneration is highly dependent on the ability to charge at work, the power level of the charging stations, and the bidirectional capabilities of the cars. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Codani, P., Petit, M. and Perez, Y. (xxxx) 'Participation of an electric vehicle fleet to primary frequency control in France', Int.
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Paul Codani, Marc Petit, Yannick Perez. Participation of an electric vehicle fleet to primary frequency control in France. International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Inderscience Publishers, 2015, 7 (3), pp.233 - 249. ⟨10.1504/IJEHV.2015.071639⟩. ⟨hal-01266877⟩

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