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Formation of co-crystals: Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects

Abstract : Co-crystallisation is a recent method of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry, since pharmaceutical co-crystals represent useful materials for drug products. In this study, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (carbamazepine (CBZ)) co-crystallized with a vitamin (nicotinamide (NCT)) was chosen as a model substance. This work was focused on the construction of a phase diagram for the system CBZ/NCT, split in six domains for kinetic reasons (the different solid phases which might appear during the crystallisation) and in four domains according to thermodynamic aspects (the stable final phase obtained). Although co-crystals are not ionic compounds, the supersaturation of co-crystals can be evaluated by considering the solubility product. Batch crystallisation operations were carried out in a stirred vessel equipped with an in situ video probe. This latter device was a powerful analysis tool to monitor the CBZ/NCT co-crystals and single CBZ crystals since these two crystalline phases grown in ethanol exhibited needle and platelet habits. As concerns kinetics, the different solid phases which might appear during the experiments were observed and competed against each others. In accordance with thermodynamics, the stable solid form was obtained at the end of the operation. Finally some preliminary results indicate that the nucleation of co-crystals may be favoured by the presence of CBZ crystals. Epitaxial relationships between CBZ/NCT co-crystals and CBZ crystals were suspected.
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Emilie Gagnière, Denis Mangin, François Puel, Alain Rivoire, Olivier Monnier, et al.. Formation of co-crystals: Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects. Journal of Crystal Growth, Elsevier, 2009, 311 (9), pp.2689-2695. ⟨10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.02.040⟩. ⟨hal-01270958⟩



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